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Home / Acid Reflux & Heartburn

Acid Reflux & Heartburn

Causes, Symptoms and Treatments for Acid Reflux

Heartburn (Acid Reflux) is a common condition caused by stomach acid that travels up to the throat causing a burning sensation. Whilst it is not deemed as a serious condition, it can cause discomfort and there are treatments available. If you're experiencing heartburn frequently, it's important to visit your doctor.

What is acid reflux & heartburn?

Though used interchangeably, acid reflux and heartburn are two different conditions.

Acid reflux is a condition where stomach acid travels up towards the throat. If the condition is severe or frequent, it is known as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).

Heartburn is a symptom of acid reflux. People with heartburn experience a burning or tightening feeling in their chest, usually just behind the breastbone. These sensations can range from mild to severe. However, they are usually made worse by lying down or bending over.

Heartburn is not connected with the heart, despite what its name suggests. Acid reflux and heartburn occur in the oesophagus which is part of the digestive system and is the tube that carries your food from your mouth into your stomach.

Occasional heartburn is no cause for concern and is actually a very common ailment. Despite the discomfort, heartburn does not usually cause serious health problems.

In fact, most people can manage its symptoms by making changes to their lifestyle or with over-the-counter medications.

Heartburn that occurs more than once a week or affects your daily routine should be investigated. It may be a symptom of a more serious condition that requires medical care; after all, heartburn presents many similar symptoms to heart attacks.

Seek medical advice if you experience severe chest pain or pressure. If this occurs in combination with other symptoms such as arm or jaw pain or difficulty breathing, see a doctor immediately.

What causes acid reflux & heartburn?

Acid reflux occurs when stomach acid fills the oesophagus, which is usually used for carrying food from your mouth to your stomach.

When someone without acid reflux swallows, the band of muscles at the bottom of the oesophagus – the lower oesophageal sphincter – relaxes. This allows food and liquid to pass through easily.

After swallowing, the muscle tightens again and the stomach releases strong acids to break down the food.

If you have acid reflux, the lower oesophageal sphincter might be weak or relax in an erratic way. This allows stomach acid to flow back into your oesophagus. The acid can damage this tube and subsequently causes a burning sensation (heartburn).

The reason why the oesophagus weakens, and acid reflux occurs, is not always clear. However, there are several things that have been identified as risk factors for acid reflux and heartburn. These include:

  • Coffee, alcohol and carbonated drinks
  • Onions, citrus products, tomato products and peppermint
  • Fatty or spicy foods
  • Being overweight
  • Smoking
  • Being pregnant
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Medications, especially anti-inflammatories
  • Other conditions like a hiatus hernia (where part of the stomach shifts into the chest)

Young children often experience acid reflux. They have small stomachs that are less able to tolerate being full.

Pregnant women are also prone to experiencing acid reflux and heartburn, usually after the first trimester. Pregnancy increases progesterone levels which relax the lower oesophagus. The increased pressure from a growing uterus is also a contributing factor.

If you experience heartburn regularly and it is quite severe, you may have GORD. This sometimes requires prescription medication, surgery or other procedures to treat effectively. It is best to seek medical advice quickly in this case as GORD can seriously damage your oesophagus.

What are the symptoms of acid reflux & heartburn?

Heartburn is the symptom of acid reflux; it's typically a burning sensation that occurs in the middle of the chest. However, it can present slightly differently.

You may experience a burning that moves up the neck or throat, or a sense of discomfort behind the breastbone. The stomach acid may also leave an unpleasant sour or bitter taste in your mouth.

Other symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn include:

  • Persistent cough or hiccups
  • Bad breath
  • Hoarse voice
  • Bloated stomach and nausea

If you have GORD, the chronic form of acid reflux, you may also experience:

  • Damage to tooth enamel caused by excess acid
  • Regurgitation, or feeling like the stomach contents have returned to the throat or mouth
  • Chest pain
  • Persistent dry cough or asthma
  • Trouble swallowing

Symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn tend to worsen after eating. Lying down and bending over also exacerbate these symptoms. Many of those who experience heartburn do so at night.

If your acid reflux is severe, you could experience some additional complications. This is because the stomach acid can severely damage the oesophagus. Consequently, you may experience:

  • Oesophagitis
  • Ulcers
  • Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • Oesophageal spasm
  • Increased risk of cancer in the oesophagus

How to treat acid reflux & heartburn

It is possible to ease the discomfort of acid reflux and heartburn with natural methods and lifestyle changes. Try avoiding substances and situations that are known to cause heartburn and try to establish if there's anything that triggers heartburn for you specifically.

You could also eat smaller, more frequent meals and make sure you avoid eating 3-4 hours before bed. Wearing clothes that fit loosely around your waist may also help.

When lying down, try to ensure that your chest and head are above the level of your waist. This will help, as it will mean the stomach acid cannot rise towards your throat. Do this by raising your mattress by 10-20cm or use an additional pillow.

If your symptoms persist, consider over-the-counter remedies.

Antacids can really help ease the symptoms of acid reflux and heartburn. They neutralise stomach acid and provide quick relief. However, they cannot heal the damage done to the oesophagus.

It is best to take antacids with food, or soon after eating, as this is when heartburn is likely to occur. The effects may also last longer if taken with food.

You may also try H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs). They reduce the stomach acid, so it cannot flow as easily into the oesophagus. They do not act as quickly as antacids but may provide longer relief.

You can sometimes take H2RAs in combination with antacids but check the label for both medications before you do so.

Proton pump inhibitors also reduce stomach acid. They tend to work longer than H2 blockers and help heal the stomach lining and the oesophagus. However, you may experience several side effects.

If your lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medicines do not relieve the symptoms, it might be best to see a GP. This is particularly true if you have heartburn for more than three weeks and experience other symptoms like food getting stuck in your throat, being sick or losing weight quickly.

Your doctor will be able to provide prescription-strength treatments and ascertain whether the cause of your acid reflux is due to a more serious condition.

They'll give you a stronger medication that reduces how much acid your stomach makes. Usually you will try this course for one or two months to test its effectiveness.

If your symptoms persist, your doctor may order tests or send you to a specialist. You might have:

  • An X-ray – To inspect the shape and condition of your oesophagus and stomach
  • An endoscopy – To look for any abnormalities
  • Ambulatory acid probe tests – To test how much stomach acid goes back into your oesophagus
  • Oesophageal motility testing – To assess movement and pressure in your oesophagus

After this, your doctor should be able to determine the cause of your acid reflux and suggest treatment options. This could include surgery, such as a laparoscopic fundoplication, but this is usually only in extreme circumstances.

How to buy Acid Reflux & Heartburn medication online

To buy Heartburn treatments online, we require a short consultation to verify the suitability and ensure you're over 18. Once completed, this can be used for future reordering.

Obtaining treatments online is a hassle-free way to keep up to date with your medications.